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DIALOGUE WITH A GIAXT                              191
should it mean that ? What conceivable reason is there to suppose
that the gift of nationality is going to be an economic liability ? A
sovereign nation of a hundred million people—even if they are
not immediately self-supporting and even if they are industrially
backward__is hardly likely to be in a worse economic position
than if its members are scattered and disorganized, under the
dominance of two hundred and fifty million Hindus whose one
idea is to exploit them.   How any European can get up and say
that Pakistan is 'economically impossible' after the Treaty of
Versailles is really beyond my comprehension.   The great brains
who cut Europe into a ridiculous patchwork of conflicting and
artificial boundaries are hardly the people to talk economics to us,
particularly as our problem happens to be far simpler,
SELF And does that also apply to defence ?
JIXNAH Of course it applies to defence.   Once again I will ask
you a question. How is Afghanistan defended ? Well ? The answer
is not very complicated.    By the Afghans.   Just that.    We are a
brave and united people who are prepared to work and, if neces-
sary, fight.   So how does the question of defence present any
peculiar* difficulties ?   In what  way  do we  differ from other
nations ? Prom Iran, for example ? Obviously, there will have to
be a transition period. We are not asking the British to quit India
overnight. The British have helped to make this gigantic muddle,
and they must stay and help to clear it up.  But before they can
do that,' they will*have to do a lot of hard thinking.   And that
reminds me—I have something I would like to show you.
He excused himself and left the room. I lit a cigarette and
waited. And suddenly I realized that something very remarkable
was happening, or rather was not happening. I was not I^iiig my
temper. Jinnah had been almost brutally critical of British policy
(though I have not quoted his remarks in the above dialo*ue),
but his criticism had been clear and creative. It was not merely
a medley of wild words, a hotchpotch of hatred and hallucination,
in the Hindu manner. It was more like a diagnosis. Tne difference
Between, Jinnah and the typical Hindu politician was the differ-
ence between a surgeon and a witch doctor. Moreover, he was &
surgeon you could trust, even though his verdict was harsh.